एसिडिटी के मुख्य लक्षण -
Thursday, November 19, 2009
एसिडिटी के मुख्य लक्षण -
Monday, August 24, 2009
Piles is a very common ailment. Women have higher incidence than men. The reason behind it is not clearly known. It is more commonly seen in adolescent age group and aged persons who all seem to be more tensed.
In medical terminology, piles is known as hemorrhoids. Piles refers to a condition in which the veins around the anus or lower rectum are swollen and inflamed. It is the dilatation (varicosity) of the veins of anus. It appears as bluish coloured swellings due to stagnated blood. Piles arise due to the increased pressure of internal or external veins around the anal canal.
Piles can be both internal and external. Internal hemorrhoids, unless they are severe, cannot be seen or felt. There is however, a discharge of dark blood. External hemorrhoids can be seen around the outside of the anus, and there is a lot of pain but not much bleeding. In some cases, the veins burst and this results in what is known as bleeding piles.
Symptoms of piles vary, and depend on the type and place of origin. Piles in its initial stage is most commonly found to be without any symptoms.
However, the most common symptoms include -
• Intense pain at the time of passing stool.
• A pain around the anus and lower rectum, which can be quite severe.
• Frequent ineffectual urge for stool without passing stool or without satisfaction of complete evacuation.
• Itching in the rectal area.
• There may be bleeding. This will be bright red blood, not usually mixed in with the motion.
• There is often a feeling of something bulging, or hanging down from the anus.
• If a haemorrhoid at the outside of the anus gets a blood clot, it leads to tender lump.
• Anemia due to profuse bleeding.
• Wind formation in the stomach.
• Sitting becomes difficult due to pain.
If left untreated, piles can lead to complications including, infection, prolapse, necrosis and gangrene. Painful bleeding usually indicates startup of complications.
Haemorrhoids are very common. It is more common in people, who regularly follow a low fibre, and high processed diet, such as processed flour, polished rice, bread etc. The main contributory cause is anything that raises the pressure in the abdomen, which leads the blood vessels to swell and become engorged.
Thus, the main cause of piles include -
- People chronically suffering from constipation.
- Even diarrhoea can cause piles. The strain for passing the stool is the main reason for the development of piles.
- After or during pregnancy, as the baby may press on the main blood vessel that returns blood to the heart.
- Overweight people.
- Physical strain – even coughing for long periods can cause the anal veins to strain.
- General weakness of the tissues of the body.
- Low fiber diet
- Anal intercourse
- Prolonged periods of sitting or standing.
- Strenuous work
- Mental tension
Haemorrhoids are very common, and may occur even after surgical removal. However, one may follow certain preventive steps to avoid recurrence –
- Avoid becoming overweight, and lose weight if you are.
- Eat a high fibre diet.
- Exercise regularly.
- Take rest and avoid long walks if you are suffering form piles.
- Drink plenty of water and follow regular bowel habits to avoid constipation.
- Use Indian style toilets since the squatting position is better for natural defecation
- If required, pass stool twice a day to avoid constipation.
- Don’t strain to evacuate hard faecal matter.
- Take easily digestible, simple homemade food. Avoid spices, chilli, very hot or cold food, and alcohol.
- Take foods such as green vegetables, ginger, onion, garlic, beetroot, bitter gourd, which helps in healing piles.
- Avoid eating potato, and the yellow variety of pumpkin.
- Take plenty of high fibre fruits especially papaya, mango, lime, jamun, figs, etc.
- Avoid sedentary habits, alcohol, smoking and unnecessary drugs like painkillers.
Piles Treatment –
It is usually best to treat piles with the least treatment possible, as even after the most extensive treatments, there is a possibility that they may still return.
Usually, piles becomes better with increased water intake, a high fibre dietary regimen and other measures to correct the constipation. Care for blood loss should be taken to avoid anaemia. Many times, they settle on their own over a matter of days without any treatment.
Haemorrhoidectomy refers to the removal of the pile by surgery. In this advanced laser treatment, the surgery reduces the pain and blood loss. However, in course of time, there is a possibility of the recurrence of piles even after surgery.
Over the counter drugs, include cream or suppositories. These soothe itching and pain, and cause the swelling and bleeding to diminish.
If the pain is very severe, cold compresses with ice can be helpful.
Homeopathic treatment, under an expert is also an effective way of dealing with this problem.
Home Remedies for Piles-
Piles treatment using Dry Figs-
Three of four figs should be soaked overnight in water after being cleaned thoroughly in hot water. They should be taken first thing in the morning along with the water in which they were soaked. They should also be taken in evening in the similar manner. This treatment should be continued for three or four weeks. The tiny seeds of the fruit possess all excellent quality of stimulating peristaltic movement of the intestines. This facilitates easy evacuation of faeces and keeps the alimentary canal clean. The pressure on the anus thus being relieved, the hemorrhoids also contract.
Piles treatment using Mango Seeds-
Mango seeds are an effective remedy for bleeding piles. The seeds should be collected during the mango season, dried in the shade, powdered, and kept stored for use as medicine. This powder should be given in doses of about one and a half to two grams with or without honey, twice daily.
Piles treatment using Jambul fruit-
The black berry fruit is another effective remedy for bleeding piles. The fruit should be taken with salt every morning for two or three months during its season. The use of the fruit in this manner during every season will effect a complete cure and save the user from bleeding piles for his entire life.
Piles treatment using Radish-
White radish is considered highly valuable in piles; 100 mg of grated radish mixed with a teaspoon of honey may be taken twice daily in treating this condition. This vegetable can also be taken in the form of juice mixed with a pinch of salt. It should be given in doses of 60 to 90 ml, morning and evening. White radish, well ground into a paste in milk. can also be applied over inflamed pile masses to relieve pain and swelling.
Piles treatment using Turnip-
The leaves of turnip have been found useful in this disease. The juice of these leaves should be extracted and 150 ml given to the patient. It is, however, necessary to take a proper diet of raw fruits and vegetables while taking this juice. For better results, 50 ml of the juice should be mixed with equal quantities of juices of watercress, spinach, and carrots.
Piles treatment using Bitter Gourd-
The juice of the fresh leaves of bitter gourd is also valuable in piles. Three teaspoons of the leaf juice, mixed with a glass of buttermilk, should be taken every morning for treating this condition. A paste of the roots of the bitter gourd plant can also be applied over piles with beneficial results.
Piles treatment using Ginger-
Ginger is also useful in this disease. Half a teaspoon of fresh ginger juice, mixed with one teaspoon each of fresh lime juice and fresh mint juice, and a tablespoon of honey, constitutes an effective medicine for piles.
Piles treatment using Onion-
Onions are valuable in bleeding piles. About thirty grams of this vegetable should be finely rubbed in water and sixty grams of sugar added to it. It should be taken twice daily by the Patient. It will bring relief within a few days. Onion is also useful in the treatment of dry piles. A crushed onion, skinned and roasted in aches, may be applied with beneficial results.
Piles treatment using Wheat Grass-
Wheat grass juice used as an enema helps detoxify the walls of the piles. The general procedure is to give an enema with lukewarm or margosa water. After waiting for twenty minutes, 90 to 120 ml of the wheat grass juice enema is given. This should be retained for fifteen minutes.
Piles treatment using Sesame Seeds-
Sesame seeds are also valuable in piles. They can be taken in the form of a decoction by boiling twenty grams of seeds in 500 ml of water till it is reduced by one-third, or as sweetmeats. Ground to paste with water, they can be given with butter for bleeding piles.
Piles treatment using Chebulic Myroblan-
The herb chebulic myroblan is a popular remedy for piles. It is very effective as a laxative and is highly astringent. The fruit should be roasted to a brown colour in cluster oil, and then powdered and stored. Half a teaspoon of this powder at bedtime will bring about normal bowel movements in the morning, and the astringent property of the fruit will heal masses. A decoction of the herb prepared by boiling six 10 seven dry fruits in half a litre of water should be used for washing bleeding piles. The paste of the fruit mixed in a bland oil is good as an external application.
Some useful home remedies for piles [In Brief] –
- Take 1 table spoon of roasted black cumin seeds and mix with 1 tablespoon of unroasted black cumin seeds and powder both together. Take 1/2 a teaspoon of this mixture with a glass of water once a day.
- Drink a glass of buttermilk with 1/4 tsp carom seed powder (ajwain) and a pinch of rock salt.
- The jamun fruit should be taken with salt every morning for two or three months during its season.
- Soak 2-3 dried figs in a glass of cold water overnight. Have it first thing in the morning on an empty stomach. Have them for 2-3 weeks for good results. It is effective in the treatment for ordinary as well as bleeding piles.
- Mix 1 teaspoon fresh mint leaves juice with 1 teaspoon lemon juice & 1 tablespoon honey. Take 3 times a day for relief from piles.
- Take ½ cup radish juice in the morning and night for a period of 1 month.
- Boil 1 ripe banana in 1 cup of milk, mash well. Take 3-4 times a day.
- Extract 3 teaspoon of bitter gourd juice, and mix in 1 glass of buttermilk, and drink on an empty stomach every morning, for a month.
With spl.thanks to various sites
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Thursday, July 30, 2009
Swine flu is a respiratory disease which infects pigs. Caused by influenza type A virus, there are regular outbreaks among herds of pigs, where the disease causes high levels of illness but is rarely fatal.
It tends to spread in autumn and winter but can circulate all year round. There are many different types of swine flu and like human flu, the virus is constantly changing. Swine flu does not normally infect humans, but when the infection does occur, it can grow to huge proportions because humans can easily pass the infection to other humans – mostly through coughing and sneezing openly.
The outbreak in Mexico seems to involve a new type of swine flu that contains DNA that is typically found in avian and human viruses. This swine flu virus is genetically different from the fully human H1N1 seasonal influenza virus that has been circulating globally for the past few years. It contains DNA that is typical to avian, swine and human viruses, including elements from European and Asian swine viruses.
As of today, there is no swine flu vaccine that can specifically protect against swine flu, but the present antiviral drugs are do provide some level of protection – both, Tamiflu and Relenza, seem effective against the new strain. Both the drugs must be taken early, within a few days of the onset of symptoms, to be most effective.
What are the symptoms?
The swine flu symptoms are broadly the same as those of ordinary flu, but may be more severe and cause more serious complications. The typical swine flu symptoms are:
4. Aching muscles
5. Limb or joint pain
6. Diarrhoea or stomach upset
7. Sore throat
8. Runny nose
9. Loss of appetite
12. Nasal congestion
Other swine flu symptoms reported with swine influenza A virus infection include vomiting, fatigue, and dyspnea. Conjunctivitis is rare, but has been reported. Severe diseases include pneumonia and respiratory failure. In addition, fatal outcomes have also been reported with swine influenza A virus infection.
However, if you have any of these symptoms but a flu pandemic has not been announced, you could have seasonal flu.
For now, while experts continue to investigate the current human swine flu cases, parents should simply call their doctor if their kids have swine flu symptoms, especially if they live in an area where swine flu cases are already being reported.
Can swine flu be treated with drugs?
Fortunately, swine flu is being treated with the available antiviral drugs. Work to manufacture specific swine flu vaccination is underway.
As with the regular seasonal flu, antiviral flu medications, including Tamiflu (oseltamivir) and Relenza (zanamivir), are available to prevent and treat swine flu. The H1N1 virus is resistant to older medications, but is still sensitive to oseltamivir and zanamivir.
Both, oseltamivir and zanamivir work best when they are started within 48 hours of developing swine flu symptoms. According to the CDC, these flu medications can also be started after 48 hours, especially if a patient is hospitalized or is at high risk to develop complications from the flu.
Swine flu drug treatment for kids:
Although Tamiflu (oseltamivir) is available in syrup form, it has never been approved for use in children under the age of 12 months. Fortunately, the FDA has recently approved the use of oseltamivir for infants under an Emergency Use Authorization.
Oseltamivir dosing for swine flu treatment in infants includes:
a. 12 mg twice daily for 5 days in infants under 3 months old
b. 20 mg twice daily for 5 days in infants 3 to 5 months old
c. 25 mg twice daily for 5 days in infants 6 to 11 months old
Dosing of oseltamivir for prevention of swine influenza in infants includes:
i) 20 mg once daily for 10 days in infants 3 to 5 months old
ii) 25 mg once daily for 10 days in infants 6 to 11 months old
However, it is not recommended that infants under 3 months old routinely take oseltamivir for prevention of swine flu.
Children over 12 months of age can take routine dosages of oseltamivir, to prevent and treat swine influenza. However, use of Relenza is only recommended for treating children who are 7 years and over and using it a preventive measure in kids who are 5 years and above.
Swine flu vaccine:
It is estimated that the swine flu vaccine will not be ready until sometime around September to November 2009. The swine flu vaccine, once manufactured, will likely be given out based on specific categories and priority levels and according to the severity of the pandemic.
Tamiflu to treat swine influenza:
Tamiflu is an antiviral prescription drug. Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines in pill, liquid or inhaler form, which work actively against the influenza flu viruses, including swine influenza viruses. Oseltamivir can be used to treat swine influenza or to prevent infection with swine flu viruses. But, oseltamivir can only be prescribed by a health care professional.
Four influenza antiviral drugs are approved for use, which include oseltamivir, zanamivir, amantadine and rimantadine. The swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses that have been detected in humans are resistant to amantadine and rimantadine. Therefore, these drugs will not work against the swine influenza viruses. Laboratory testing on the swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses so far indicate that these viruses are vulnerable (sensitive) to oseltamivir and zanamivir.
When infected with the swine influenza virus, oseltamivir can help make the illness milder and make you feel better faster. Moreover, it may also prevent serious influenza complications. Oseltamivir will work best when it is started soon after the onset of the illness. But in hospitalized patients and people at high risk for influenza-related complications, antiviral drug treatment should still be considered after 48 hours of symptom onset.
Oseltamivir an also be used as a preventive measure in people who are not ill, but who have been or may be near a person with swine influenza. Oseltamivir, as a preventive measure, is about 70-90% effective.
CDC also recommends the use of oseltamivir both for treatment and/or prevention of infection with swine influenza viruses. Oseltamivir (Tamiflu ®) is approved to both treat and prevent influenza A virus infection in people one year of age and older.
With.Spl.Thks to various sites.
Wednesday, May 13, 2009
ऑफिस में काम करने के बजाय इधर-उधर की बातों में सिर खपाने को बुरी बात माना जाता है। दिन में सपने देखना इतना बुरा भी नहीं है और इससे मस्तिष्क को जीवन की जटिल समस्याओं को सुलझाने में मदद मिलती है। एक नए अध्ययन से यह तथ्य सामने आया है। दिमाग की आवारागर्दी को आमतौर पर नकारात्मक चीजों जैसे आलस्य या असावधानी से जोड़ा जाता है। परंतु अध्ययन से स्पष्ट हुआ है कि जागते हुए सपने देखने के समय दिमाग बहुत सक्रिय रहता है। किसी सामान्य कार्य को करने के दौरान जितना मस्तिष्क सक्रिय रहता है, उससे दिमाग की गति काफी अधिक रहती है।
लेकिन फिर भी लोग काम करते-करते दूर ख्यालों में खो जाते हैं। यूं दूर ख्यालों में खोना यानी दिन में ही सपने देखना बुरी बात नहीं है। साइंटिस्ट के मुताबिक इस तरह दिन में ही ऊटपटांग सपने देखना इंसान की रचनात्मकता में इजाफा करता है।
रिसर्च बताती है कि दिन में सपने देखने के दौरान दिमाग कई ऐसी बातों और संबंधों के बारे में सोचता है, जिन पर सामान्य परिस्थितियों में ध्यान नहीं जाता। इस दौरान इंसान का ध्यान अपने आसपास के हालात से परे जाकर अजीबोगरीब चीजों पर लगता है। ऐसे में उन चीजों की भी कल्पना कर ली जाती है, जो वास्तव में होती भी नहीं हैं।
दिन में सपने देखने के लिए खाली टाइम और उससे पैदा होने वाली बेचैनी खासी जरूरी है। कई बार कल्पना के घोड़े खुली आंखों से दौड़ाने पर न सिर्फ वक्त कट जाता है, बल्कि इसमें खासा मजा भी आता है। मगर दिन में सपने देखना यूं ही नहीं आ जाता, इसके लिए भी अभ्यास की जरूरत पड़ती है। दिन में सपने देखने के लिए बहुत आराम से सोचने की जरूरत है बिना किसी पूर्व निर्धारित शर्त या दबाव के। ऐसे ख्यालों को खास तौर पर आजादी देनी होती है, जो पहली नजर में बकवास लगते हैं।
दिन में सपने देखने से लोगों में खुद को फ्यूचर में प्रोजेक्ट करने और उसकी तमाम संभावनाओं पर प्रतिक्रिया जताने की क्षमता बढ़ जाती है। जब आप जागते हुए सपने देखते हैं तो आप अपने तात्कालिक लक्ष्य जैसे किताब पढ़ना या कक्षा में ध्यान देने को हासिल नहीं कर रहे होते लेकिन आपका दिमाग इस समय आपके जीवन के अधिक महत्वपूर्ण प्रश्नों जैसे करियर को आगे बढ़ाने या व्यक्तिगत संबंधों के बारे में सोच रहा होता है। सामान्य कामों में लगे रहने की बजाए दिमाग को खुला छोड़ देने से वह जटिल समस्याओं को अधिक सफलतापूर्वक सुलझा सकता है। उसके बिना हम बेहद सीमित सोच के इंसान बनकर रह जाएंगे। तो अगली बार जब दिन में ख्यालों की भूलभुलैया में भटकें, तो कोई गिला नहीं रहे क्योंकि इससे दिमाग तेज होता है।
स्रोत- विभिन्न साइटें
Thursday, May 7, 2009
हद से ज्यादा शराबखोरी कम उम्र में मौत की वजह मानी जाती रही है, पर रोजाना थोड़ी मात्रा में शराब पीने से उम्र में पांच वर्षों का इजाफा किया जा सकता है। नए शोध से इसकी पुष्टि हुई है। डच शोधकर्ताओं ने इस शोध के लिए ऐसे 1373 लोगों पर किए गए शोध निष्कर्षों को आधार बनाया है जिनके स्वास्थ्य पर वर्ष 1960 से वर्ष 2000 की अवधि के बीच गहन निगरानी रखकर एक शोध पूरा किया था।इस अवधि में औसतन 50 वर्ष उम्र वाले इन लोगों के हृदय संबंधी स्वास्थ्य और जीवन प्रत्याशा का अध्ययन किया। शोधकर्ताओं ने यह जानने की कोशिश की कि ऐसे लोगों के स्वास्थ्य पर मद्यपान का कैसा असर पड़ता रहा है। 40 वर्षों की निगरानी अवधि में इन लोगों में 1,130 की मौत हो गई। आधे से अधिक लोगों की मौत दिल की बीमारी से हुई। शोध से पता चला कि जो लोग रोजाना 20 ग्राम शराब पीते रहे उनकी जीवन प्रत्याशा शराब नहीं पीने वालों की तुलना में 2 वर्ष बढ़ गई। ब्रिटिश मेडिकल जर्नल द्वारा जारी एक विज्ञप्ति में कहा गया है कि नियमित रूप से रोजाना थोड़ी मात्रा में शराब पीने से उम्र में औसतन 5 वर्ष का इजाफा हो सकता है।
पुरुषों को आकर्षित करने के लिए कॉलेज जाने वाली महिलाएं शराब का अधिक सेवन करती हैं लेकिन इससे उन्हें कोई विशेष सफलता नहीं मिलती। एक नए अध्ययन में यह तथ्य सामने आया है। ‘डेट’ पर ज्यादातर महिलाओं को लगता है कि उनका पुरुष साथी उनसे और अधिक शराब पीने की उम्मीद करता है। परिणामस्वरुप किसी भी समारोह के दौरान पुरुष जितनी शराब पीने को वरीयता देते हैं उसे 71 प्रतिशत महिलाएं लांघ जाती हैं।शोधकर्ताओं के अनुसार 26 प्रतिशत महिलाओं ने कहा कि पुरुष उन महिलाओं से मित्रता करना पसंद करते हैं जिन्होंने पांच पेग से अधिक शराब पी हो और 16 प्रतिशत ने कहा कि पुरुष महिलाओं की ओर से सबसे अधिक यौनाकर्षित तब होते हैं जब महिला ने काफी अधिक शराब पी रखी हो। यह अनुमान वास्तव में उसका दोगुना है जिसको कि वास्तव में पुरुष वरीयता देते हैं। लायोला मेरीमाउंट विश्वविद्यालय में मनोविज्ञान के सहायक प्रोफेसर जोसेफ लाब्री ने कहा कि सभी महिलाएं पुरुषों को आकर्षित करने के लिए अधिक शराब नहीं पीती हैं लेकिन अधिकतर महिलाओं के खतरनाक हद तक पीने का यह बहुत साधारण स्पष्टीकरण हो सकता है।शोध के नतीजे अमेरिकन साइकोलॉजी एसोसिएशन द्वारा प्रकाशित साइकोलॉजी ऑफ एडिक्टिव बिहैवियर के मार्च अंक में दिए गए हैं।
लेकिन अगर आप सोचते हैं कि कम शराब पीने के कारण आप इसके दुष्प्रभावों से दूर हैं तो अपने मन से यह गलतफहमी निकाल दें। एक नए शोध के अनुशार थोड़ी मात्रा में ली गई शराब भी आपको हकीकत से दूर कर सकती है। कम मात्रा में ली गई शराब भी खतरनाक हो सकती है क्योंकि यह हमारे दिमागी संतुलन पर असर डालती है। उदाहरण के लिए वाहन चलाने वाले लोगों के लिए यह खतरनाक हो सकता है क्योंकि अक्सर वे नियंत्रण खो बैठते हैं और उन्हें यह ध्यान ही नहीं रहता कि वे क्या कर रहे हैं। पीने के बाद लोगों में अपनी मौजूदा स्थिति का आंकलन करने की क्षमता कम हो जाती है।
शराब का चयापचन यकृत (लीवर) में होता है। यही यकृत के क्षतिग्रस्त होने की मुख्य वजह भी है। यकृत में शराब खतरनाक रसायन एसिटेल्डिहाइड बनकर यकृत के ऊतकों को नुकसान पहुँचाती है। यकृत के सामान्य ऊतकों पर तंतुयुक्त ऊतक व कोशिकाओं के जमा हो जाने से यकृत की कार्य क्षमता कम हो जाती है। शराब के पहले हमले के नतीजे में मिलता है "फेटी लीवर"। यकृत वसा का चयापचय करता है। लेकिन तंतुयुक्त ऊतकों व कोशिकाओं के चढ़ जाने के बाद काम करना बंद कर देता है। यकृत जब वसा का चयापचय करना बंद कर देता हो वसा यकृत में जमा हो जाती है। जमा हो जाने के बाद वसा वहीं रह जाती है। इस स्थिति में यदि शराब छोड़ दी जाए तो न केवल आगे होने वाले स्थाई नुकसान को रोका जा सकता है अपितु लीवर के सामान्य स्थिति में लौट आने की संभावनाएँ भी बनी रहती हैं।
दूसरे हमले की देन है अल्कोहोलिक हेपेटाइटिस । यह अत्यधिक मात्रा में शराब पीने से यकृत पर सूजन आने से होती है। इसमें मरीज को भूख ना लगना , उल्टियाँ तथा पीलिया हो जाता है। तीसरे हमले में मिलता है सिरोसिस ऑफ लीवर। लंबे समय तक अत्यधिक मात्रा में शराब पीने से यकृत के 70-80 प्रतिशत भाग में फ्राईब्रोसिस हो जाता है। सिरोसिस के कारण पेट में पानी भर जाता है। शराब के कारण शरीर की रोगों से लड़ने की क्षमता काफी कम हो जाती है। शुरू में लोग शराब मजे के लिए पीते हैं पर बाद में शराब उन्हें पी जाती है।
इसलिए बेहतर यही है कि शराब थोडी या अधिक, किसी भी रूप में न पियें तो ही अच्छा।
with thanks to josh18
Friday, April 10, 2009
World hunger is extensive in spite of sufficient global food resources. Therefore increased food production is no solution. The problem is that many people are too poor to buy readily available food. Therefore, measures solving the poverty problem are what is required to solve the world hunger problem. However, meaningful long-term alleviation to hunger is rooted in the alleviation of poverty, as poverty leads to hunger. World hunger is a terrible symptom of world poverty. If efforts are only directed at providing food, or improving food production or distribution, then the structural root causes that create hunger, poverty and dependency would still remain. And so while continuous effort, resources and energies are deployed to relieve hunger through these technical measures, the political causes require political solutions as well.
Hunger is a term which has three meanings -
a.) The uneasy or painful sensation caused by want of food; craving appetite. Also the exhausted condition caused by want of food.
b.) The want or scarcity of food in a country.
c.) A strong desire or craving.
World hunger refers to the second definition, aggregated to the world level. The related technical term is malnutrition. Malnutrition is a general term that indicates a lack of some or all nutritional elements necessary for human health. There are two basic types of malnutrition. The first and most important is protein-energy malnutrition--the lack of enough protein (from meat and other sources) and food that provides energy (measured in calories) which all of the basic food groups provide. This is the type of malnutrition that is referred to when world hunger is discussed. The second type of malnutrition, also very important, is micronutrient (vitamin and mineral) deficiency. This is not the type of malnutrition that is referred to when world hunger is discussed, though it is certainly very important.
Cause of World Hunger -
There are many inter-related issues causing hunger, which are related to economics and other factors that cause poverty. They include land rights and ownership, diversion of land use to non-productive use, increasing emphasis on export-oriented agriculture, inefficient agricultural practices, war, famine, drought, over-fishing, poor crop yields, etc. The causes of poverty include poor people's lack of resources, an extremely unequal income distribution in the world and within specific countries, conflict, and hunger itself. Extreme poverty remains an alarming problem in the world’s developing regions, despite the advances made in the last decade till now, which reduced "Dollar/Rupees a day" poverty from Progress in poverty reduction has been concentrated in Asia, and especially, East Asia, with the major improvement occurring in China.
Hunger in India -
India is long known to have some of the highest rates of child malnutrition and mortality in under-fives in the world. According to the Indian government statistics two years ago, around 60% of more than 10 million children in the state were malnourished. Nutrition experts say the abysmal record is due to an inadequate access to food, poor feeding practices and poor childcare practices in India. And now the rise in the global food prices has reduced the food-buying capacity of many poor families, making their situation worse. In the past year food prices have increased significantly, but people's incomes haven't kept pace, forcing many families further into hunger, experts say. All states also need to improve strategies to facilitate inclusive economic growth, ensure food sufficiency and reduce child mortality.
World level of Hunger -
No one really knows how many people are malnourished. The statistic most frequently cited is that of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, which measures 'under-nutrition'. The most recent estimate in 2006 of the FAO says that 854 million people worldwide are undernourished. This is 12.6 percent of the estimated world population of 6.6 billion. Most of the undernourished--820 million--are in developing countries. The FAO estimate is based on statistical aggregates. It looks at a country's income level and income distribution and uses this information to estimate how many people receive such a low level of income that they are malnourished. It is not an estimate based on seeing to what extent actual people are malnourished and projecting from there. It has been argued that the FAO approach is not sufficient to give accurate estimates of malnutrition.
Children are the most visible victims of under-nutrition. Children who are poorly nourished suffer up to 160 days of illness each year. Poor nutrition plays a role in at least half of the 10.9 million child deaths each year--five million deaths. Under-nutrition magnifies the effect of every disease, including measles and malaria. Malnutrition can also be caused by diseases, such as the diseases that cause diarrhea, by reducing the body's ability to convert food into usable nutrients.
Solution of world hunger -
Solving world hunger in the conventional sense (of providing/growing more food etc) will not tackle poverty that leads to hunger in the first place. Further, there is a risk of continuing the poverty and dependency without realizing it, because the act of attempting to provide more food etc can appear so altruistic in motive. To solve world hunger in the long run, poverty alleviation is required.
Another view is that the belief that world hunger can be solved by increasing food production is an unsubstantiated myth. It has lead to policies by international organs that have supported farming policies that in practice have boosted production of expensive export foods on the expense of production of basic foods for the population. The real problem is poverty. As the market responds to money and not to actual need, it can only work to eliminate hunger when purchasing power is widely dispersed. As the rural poor are increasingly pushed from land, they are less and less able to demand for food on the market. Promoting free trade to alleviate hunger has proven to be a failure. In most developing countries exports have boomed while hunger has continued unabated or actually worsened according to the book.
(With thanks to various sites)
Tuesday, March 31, 2009
For the purpose, you should have to fold the skin of stomach and measure the thickness. If the width is less than ½ inches, it may be reduced by doing exercises only without dieting. But if the width is more than ½ inches, the exercises and also dieting will have to be done regularly.
Some noticeable points are here:
1. Do your breakfast freely, lunch be done lesser and dinner be taken much lesser than that.
2. Dinner be taken soon just after evening so that there is no need to take meal meanwhile.
3. Try to reduce the use of more sugar and oily food. Take grains, green vegetables and fruits, etc. for fulfilling the required energy of body.
4. Take Vitamin C as much as you can which is generally found in some grains, green vegetables and fruits, etc. You can take tablets of the same after some intervals.
5. Soft drinks, coffee, tea, wines, meats and sweet drinks may not be taken because these things reduce our digesting process.
6. Take water alternatively as much as you can.
7. Light food be taken in the dinner because in the night, the digestion system is not much active. It results more insulin to change the carbohydrate into fat and more deposition of fat in the stomach.